2 paste is essentially similar to rutile TiO2 paste, however, the rutile particles are coated using a thin layer of SiO2,
in order to inhibit the electrical conductivity. In dye sensitized solar cells, a rutile@SiO2 reflector layer only shows optical
effect, and due to being an insulator, plays no electrical role in the solar cell device. The paste can be applied by blade
coating or screen printing. By thermal treatment, at around 100 °C the solvent is evaporated, at below 400 °C the binder
is removed and at >500 °C nanocrystals are sintered into a sufficiently good conductivity film.